In the depths of the Milky Way, the scientists have discovered an ancient star and named it J0023+0307. What is unusual about this star is that it contains no carbon that can be detected. This fact is so peculiar that the astronomers who found it even declared that the heavenly body should not exist.
The divergent of the galaxy
Moreover, besides the fact that J0023+0307 isn’t made of carbon, the scientists have discovered that it contains high levels lithium, which they say, it is very unexpected. It is common for old stars to be made of lithium, but regarding this particular body, they can’t give a plausible explication although they know that the star formed after the Big Bang, when the first generations of stars started to die, likely in the first 300 million years prior the explosion.
David Aguado, an astronomer of Cambridge University stated that the star’s possible connection to the primordial lithium created in the Big Bang might be the cause of such high levels of the chemical element in its structure.
Approximately 1,3 billion years ago, when the universe was formed, besides hydrogen and helium, small amounts of light elements like lithium and beryllium were forged. Seas of neutrons, protons, electrons, positrons, photons, and neutrinos formed these elements which came into being after the Big Bang and formed the process named Big Bang nucleosynthesis.
When the first generation of stars died, with the more heavy elements from the inside ejected outside in the cosmos, the very elements they had forged got caught up within the new stars newly formed.
Through the process of spectroscopy, astronomers can spot and identify ancient stars. The heavenly bodies with low content of heavy metals are called EMT or extremely metal-poor stars are supposed to have formed when those elements didn’t exist in the Universe.
J0023+0307 is one of the most metal-poor heavenly bodies that have been discovered, has as much lithium as approximately the same measures as any other EMPs. Besides those anomalies, the star contains less than a thousandth of the Sun’s metallicity.
Jonay González Hernández, an astronomer of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias in Spain reportedly confirmed that the lithium content of J0023+0307 is alike to that of the known metal-poor stars that are placed within the halo of our galaxy, and said that they explicate an approximately constant value, apart of the value of the star’s content.
Normally, lithium is destroyed in regular stars when the stellar collision occurs (at a temperature of 2.5 million Kelvin), so all in all, smaller stars don’t hold lithium within at all, whereas the large ones can retain it in their outer atmosphere which is cooler.
Frankly, metal-poor stars can’t burn as hot as the small ones with high matter of metal.
In conclusion, the astronomers say that it is actually possible for the star named J0023+0307 to contain lithium as a result of the Big Bang nucleosynthesis, but this means that the stars’ lithium content is the same lithium they started with. This alone unexpected discovery could guide the experts toward more leads on this mysterious occurrence.